> _0bjbjAbbb{NN8LHdP,(PPPPPPP$QpTv7P7PLPc#c#c#Pc#Pc#c#2JQOnz^mL.ObP0PLTCT\QOTQOerc#\37P7P"dPTN(v: CHAPTER 2: PRESENTING DATA IN TABLES AND CHARTS
TABLE 2-1
An insurance company evaluates many numerical variables about a person before deciding on an appropriate rate for automobile insurance. A representative from a local insurance agency selected a random sample of insured drivers and recorded, X, the number of claims each made in the last 3 years, with the following results.
X f
1 14
2 18
3 12
4 5
5 1
Referring to Table 2-1, how many drivers are represented in the sample?
5
15
18
50
ANSWER:
d
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-1, how many total claims are represented in the sample?
15
50
111
250
ANSWER:
c
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: interpretation, frequency distribution
A type of vertical bar chart in which the categories are plotted in the descending rank order of the magnitude of their frequencies is called a
contingency table.
Pareto diagram.
dot plot.
pie chart.
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: Pareto diagram
TABLE 2-2
At a meeting of information systems officers for regional offices of a national company, a survey was taken to determine the number of employees the officers supervise in the operation of their departments, where X is the number of employees overseen by each information systems officer.
X f_
7
5
11
8
9
Referring to Table 2-2, how many regional offices are represented in the survey results?
5
11
15
40
ANSWER:
d
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: interpretation, frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-2, across all of the regional offices, how many total employees were supervised by those surveyed?
15
40
127
200
ANSWER:
c
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: interpretation, frequency distribution
The width of each bar in a histogram corresponds to the
differences between the boundaries of the class.
number of observations in each class.
midpoint of each class.
percentage of observations in each class.
ANSWER:
a
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution
TABLE 2-3
Every spring semester, the School of Business coordinates with local business leaders a luncheon for graduating seniors, their families, and friends. Corporate sponsorship pays for the lunches of each of the seniors, but students have to purchase tickets to cover the cost of lunches served to guests they bring with them. The following histogram represents the attendance at the senior luncheon, where X is the number of guests each graduating senior invited to the luncheon and f is the number of graduating seniors in each category.
Referring to the histogram from Table 2-3, how many graduating seniors attended the luncheon?
4
152
275
388
ANSWER:
c
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Difficult
EXPLANATION: The number of graduating seniors is the sum of all the frequencies, f.
KEYWORDS: interpretation, histogram
Referring to the histogram from Table 2-3, if all the tickets purchased were used, how many guests attended the luncheon?
4
152
275
388
ANSWER:
d
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Difficult
EXPLANATION: The total number of guests is EMBED Equation.DSMT4
KEYWORDS: interpretation, histogram
A professor of economics at a small Texas university wanted to determine what year in school students were taking his tough economics course. Shown below is a pie chart of the results. What percentage of the class took the course prior to reaching their senior year?
14%
44%
54%
86%
ANSWER:
d
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: interpretation, pie chart
When polygons or histograms are constructed, which axis must show the true zero or "origin"?
The horizontal axis.
The vertical axis.
Both the horizontal and vertical axes.
Neither the horizontal nor the vertical axis.
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: polygon, histogram
When constructing charts, the following is plotted at the class midpoints:
frequency histograms
percentage polygons
cumulative relative frequency ogives
All of the above.
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: percentage polygon
TABLE 2-4
A survey was conducted to determine how people rated the quality of programming available on television. Respondents were asked to rate the overall quality from 0 (no quality at all) to 100 (extremely good quality). The stem-and-leaf display of the data is shown below.
Stem Leaves
3 24
4 03478999
5 0112345
6 12566
7 01
8
9 2
Referring to Table 2-4, what percentage of the respondents rated overall television quality with a rating of 80 or above?
0
4
96
100
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-4, what percentage of the respondents rated overall television quality with a rating of 50 or below?
11
40
44
56
ANSWER:
c
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-4, what percentage of the respondents rated overall television quality with a rating between 50 and 75?
11
40
44
56
ANSWER:
d
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
TABLE 2-5
The following are the durations in minutes of a sample of long-distance phone calls made within the continental United States reported by one long-distance carrier.
Relative
Time (in Minutes) Frequency
0 but less than 5 0.37
5 but less than 10 0.22
10 but less than 15 0.15
15 but less than 20 0.10
20 but less than 25 0.07
25 but less than 30 0.07
30 or more 0.02
Referring to Table 2-5, what is the width of each class?
1 minute
5 minutes
2%
100%
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: class interval, relative frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-5, if 1,000 calls were randomly sampled, how many calls lasted under 10 minutes?
220
370
410
590
ANSWER:
d
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-5, if 100 calls were randomly sampled, how many calls lasted 15 minutes or longer?
10
14
26
74
ANSWER:
c
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-5, if 10 calls lasted 30 minutes or more, how many calls lasted less than 5 minutes?
10
185
295
500
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-5, what is the cumulative relative frequency for the percentage of calls that lasted under 20 minutes?
0.10
0.59
0.76
0.84
ANSWER:
d
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: cumulative relative frequency
Referring to Table 2-5, what is the cumulative relative frequency for the percentage of calls that lasted 10 minutes or more?
0.16
0.24
0.41
0.90
ANSWER:
c
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: cumulative relative frequency
Referring to Table 2-5, if 100 calls were randomly sampled, _______ of them would have lasted at least 15 minutes but less than 20 minutes
0.10
0.16
10
16
ANSWER:
c
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-5, if 100 calls were sampled, _______ of them would have lasted less than 15 minutes.
26
74
10
None of the above.
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-5, if 100 calls were sampled, _______of them would have lasted 20 minutes or more.
26
16
74
None of the above.
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-5, if 100 calls were sampled, _______ of them would have lasted less than 5 minutes or at least 30 minutes or more.
35
37
39
None of the above.
ANSWER:
c
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Difficult
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, interpretation
When studying the simultaneous responses to two categorical questions, we should set up a
contingency table.
frequency distribution table.
cumulative percentage distribution table.
histogram.
ANSWER:
a
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: contingency table
TABLE 2-6
A sample of 200 students at a Big-Ten university was taken after the midterm to ask them whether they went bar hopping the weekend before the midterm or spent the weekend studying, and whether they did well or poorly on the midterm. The following table contains the result.
Did Well in MidtermDid Poorly in MidtermStudying for Exam8020Went Bar Hopping3070
Referring to Table 2-6, of those who went bar hopping the weekend before the midterm in the sample, _______ percent of them did well on the midterm.
15
27.27
30
55
ANSWER:
c
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: contingency table, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-6, of those who did well on the midterm in the sample, _______ percent of them went bar hopping the weekend before the midterm.
15
27.27
30
50
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: contingency table, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-6, _______ percent of the students in the sample went bar hopping the weekend before the midterm and did well on the midterm.
15
27.27
30
50
ANSWER:
a
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: contingency table, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-6, _______ percent of the students in the sample spent the weekend studying and did well on the midterm.
40
50
72.72
80
ANSWER:
a
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: contingency table, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-6, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of the students in the population to spend the weekend studying and do poorly on the midterm.
10
20
45
50
ANSWER:
a
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: contingency table, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-6, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of those who spent the weekend studying to do poorly on the midterm.
10
20
45
50
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-6, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of those who did poorly on the midterm to have spent the weekend studying.
10
22.22
45
50
ANSWER:
b
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, interpretation
In a contingency table, the number of rows and columns
must always be the same.
must always be 2.
must add to 100%.
None of the above.
ANSWER:
d
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table
Retailers are always interested in determining why a customer selected their store to make a purchase. A sporting goods retailer conducted a customer survey to determine why its customers shopped at the store. The results are shown in the bar chart below. What proportion of the customers responded that they shopped at the store because of the merchandise or the convenience?
35%
50%
65%
85%
ANSWER:
c
TYPE: MC DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: bar chart, interpretation
TABLE 2-7
The Stem-and-Leaf display below contains data on the number of months between the date a civil suit is filed and when the case is actually adjudicated for 50 cases heard in superior court.
Stem Leaves
1 L 2 3 4 4 4
1 H 7 8 9 9
2 L 2 2 2 2 3 4
2 H 5 5 6 7 8 8 8 9
3 L 0 0 1 1 1 3
3 H 5 7 7 8
4 L 0 2 3 4
4 H 5 5 7 9
5 L 1 1 2 4
5 H 6 6
6 L 1 5
6 H 8
Note: 1L means the low teens 10, 11, 12, 13, or 14; 1H means the high teens 15, 16, 17, 18, or 19; 2L means the low twenties 20, 21, 22, 23, or 24, etc.
Referring to Table 2-7, locate the first leaf, i.e., the lowest valued leaf with the lowest valued stem. This represents a wait of ________ months.
ANSWER:
12
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: 1 Easy
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-7, the civil suit with the longest wait between when the suit was filed and when it was adjudicated had a wait of ________ months.
ANSWER:
68
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-7, the civil suit with the fourth shortest waiting time between when the suit was filed and when it was adjudicated had a wait of ________ months.
ANSWER:
14
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-7, ________ percent of the cases were adjudicated within the first 2 years.
ANSWER:
30
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-7, ________ percent of the cases were not adjudicated within the first 4 years.
ANSWER:
20
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-7, if a frequency distribution with equal sized classes was made from this data, and the first class was "10 but less than 20," the frequency of that class would be ________.
ANSWER:
9
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-7, if a frequency distribution with equal sized classes was made from this data, and the first class was "10 but less than 20," the relative frequency of the third class would be ________.
ANSWER:
0.20 or 20% or 10/50
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, relative frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-7, if a frequency distribution with equal sized classes was made from this data, and the first class was "10 but less than 20," the cumulative percentage of the second class would be ________.
ANSWER:
46% or 0.46 or 23/50
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, cumulative percentage distribution
TABLE 2-8
The Stem-and-Leaf display represents the number of times in a year that a random sample of 100 "lifetime" members of a health club actually visited the facility.
Stem Leaves
0 012222233333344566666667789999
1 1111222234444455669999
2 00011223455556889
3 0000446799
4 011345567
5 0077
6 8
7 67
8 3
9 0247
Referring to Table 2-8, the person who has the largest leaf associated with the smallest stem visited the facility ________ times.
ANSWER:
9
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-8, the person who visited the health club less than anyone else in the sample visited the facility ________ times.
ANSWER:
0 or no
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-8, the person who visited the health club more than anyone else in the sample visited the facility ________ times.
ANSWER:
97
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-8, ________ of the 100 members visited the health club at least 52 times in a year.
ANSWER:
10
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-8, ________ of the 100 members visited the health club no more than 12 times in a year.
ANSWER:
38
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, interpretation
Referring to Table 2-8, if a frequency distribution with equal sized classes was made from this data, and the first class was "0 but less than 10," the frequency of the fifth class would be ________.
ANSWER:
9
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-8, if a frequency distribution with equal sized classes was made from this data, and the first class was "0 but less than 10," the relative frequency of the last class would be ________.
ANSWER:
4% or 0.04 or 4/100
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, relative frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-8, if a frequency distribution with equal sized classes was made from this data, and the first class was "0 but less than 10," the cumulative percentage of the next-to-last class would be ________.
ANSWER:
96% or 0.96 or 96/100
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, cumulative percentage distribution
Referring to Table 2-8, if a frequency distribution with equal sized classes was made from this data, and the first class was "0 but less than 10," the class midpoint of the third class would be ________.
ANSWER:
25 or (20+30)/2
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, class midpoint
TABLE 2-9
The frequency distribution below represents the rents of 250 randomly selected federally subsidized apartments in Minneapolis.
Rent in $ Frequency
300 but less than 400 113
400 but less than 500 85
500 but less than 600 32
600 but less than 700 16
700 but less than 800 4
Referring to Table 2-9, ________ apartments rented for at least $400 but less than $600.
ANSWER:
117
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-9, ________ percent of the apartments rented for no less than $600.
ANSWER:
8% or 20/250
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution, cumulative percentage distribution
Referring to Table 2-9, ________ percent of the apartments rented for at least $500.
ANSWER:
20.8% or 52/250
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution, cumulative percentage distribution
Referring to Table 2-9, the class midpoint of the second class is ________.
ANSWER:
450
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution, class midpoint
Referring to Table 2-9, the relative frequency of the second class is ________.
ANSWER:
85/250 or 17/50 or 34% or 0.34
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution, relative frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-9, the percentage of apartments renting for less than $600 is ________.
ANSWER:
230/250 or 23/25 or 92% or 0.92
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution, cumulative percentage distribution
TABLE 2-10
The histogram below represents scores achieved by 200 job applicants on a personality profile.
Referring to the histogram from Table 2-10, ________ percent of the job applicants scored between 10 and 20.
ANSWER:
20%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: histogram, percentage distribution
Referring to the histogram from Table 2-10, ________ percent of the job applicants scored below 50.
ANSWER:
80%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: histogram, percentage distribution
Referring to the histogram from Table 2-10, the number of job applicants who scored between 30 and below 60 is _______.
ANSWER:
80
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: histogram
Referring to the histogram from Table 2-10, the number of job applicants who scored 50 or above is _______.
ANSWER:
40
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: histogram
Referring to the histogram from Table 2-10, 90% of the job applicants scored above or equal to ________.
ANSWER:
10
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: histogram, cumulative percentage distribution
Referring to the histogram from Table 2-10, half of the job applicants scored below ________.
ANSWER:
30
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: histogram, cumulative percentage distribution
Referring to the histogram from Table 2-10, _______ percent of the applicants scored below 20 or at least 50.
ANSWER:
50%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: histogram, cumulative percentage distribution
Referring to the histogram from Table 2-10, _______ percent of the applicants scored between 20 and below 50.
ANSWER:
50%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: histogram, cumulative percentage distribution
TABLE 2-11
The ordered array below resulted from taking a sample of 25 batches of 500 computer chips and determining how many in each batch were defective.
Defects
1 2 4 4 5 5 6 7 9 9 12 12 15
17 20 21 23 23 25 26 27 27 28 29 29
Referring to Table 2-11, if a frequency distribution for the defects data is constructed, using "0 but less than 5" as the first class, the frequency of the 20 but less than 25 class would be ________.
ANSWER:
4
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-11, if a frequency distribution for the defects data is constructed, using "0 but less than 5" as the first class, the relative frequency of the 15 but less than 20 class would be ________.
ANSWER:
0.08 or 8% or 2/25
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-11, construct a frequency distribution for the defects data, using "0 but less than 5" as the first class.
ANSWER:
Defects Frequency
0 but less than 5 4
5 but less than 10 6
10 but less than 15 2
15 but less than 20 2
20 but less than 25 4
25 but less than 30 7
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-11, construct a relative frequency or percentage distribution for the defects data, using "0 but less than 5" as the first class.
ANSWER:
Defects Percentage
0 but less than 5 16
5 but less than 10 24
10 but less than 15 8
15 but less than 20 8
20 but less than 25 16
25 but less than 30 28
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, percentage distribution
Referring to Table 2-11, construct a cumulative percentage distribution for the defects data if the corresponding frequency distribution uses "0 but less than 5" as the first class.
ANSWER:
Defects CumPct
0 0
5 16
10 40
15 48
20 56
25 72
30 100
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: cumulative percentage distribution
Referring to Table 2-11, construct a histogram for the defects data, using "0 but less than 5" as the first class.
ANSWER:
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: histogram, frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-11, construct a cumulative percentage polygon for the defects data if the corresponding frequency distribution uses "0 but less than 5" as the first class.
ANSWER:
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: cumulative percentage polygon
The point halfway between the boundaries of each class interval in a grouped frequency distribution is called the _______.
ANSWER:
class midpoint
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: cumulative percentage polygon, frequency distribution
A _______ is a vertical bar chart in which the rectangular bars are constructed at the boundaries of each class interval.
ANSWER:
histogram
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: histogram
It is essential that each class grouping or interval in a frequency distribution be ________.
ANSWER:
non-overlapping
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution, class interval
In order to compare one large batch of numerical data to another, a ________ distribution must be developed from the frequency distribution.
ANSWER:
relative frequency or percentage
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, percentage distribution
When comparing two or more large batches of numerical data, the distributions being developed should use the same ________.
ANSWER:
class boundaries.
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: class boundaries
It is desirable that the width of each class grouping or interval in a frequency distribution be ________.
ANSWER:
the same or equal
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: class interval, frequency distribution
In constructing a polygon, each class grouping is represented by its _______ and then these are consecutively connected to one another.
ANSWER:
midpoint
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: polygon, class interval, midpoint
A _______ is a summary table in which numerical data are tallied into class intervals or categories.
ANSWER:
frequency distribution
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution, class interval
True or False: In general, grouped frequency distributions should have between 5 and 15 class intervals.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution, number of classes
True or False: The sum of relative frequencies in a distribution always equals 1.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: relative frequency
True or False: The sum of cumulative frequencies in a distribution always equals 1.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: cumulative frequency distribution
True or False: In graphing bivariate categorical data, the side-by-side bar chart is best suited when primary interest is in demonstrating differences in magnitude rather than differences in percentages.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: side-by-side chart
True or False: When constructing a frequency distribution, classes should be selected in such a way that they are of equal width.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution
True or False: A research analyst was directed to arrange raw data collected on the yield of wheat, ranging from 40 to 93 bushels per acre, in a frequency distribution. He should choose 30 as the class interval width.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution, class interval
True or False: If the values of the seventh and eighth class in a cumulative frequency distribution are the same, we know that there are no observations in the eighth class.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: cumulative frequency distribution
True or False: Research on Human perception concludes that the bar chart is preferred to the pie chart, because the human eye can more accurately judge length comparisons against a fixed scale (as in a bar chart) than angular measures (as in a pie chart).
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: bar chart, pie chart
True or False: One of the advantages of a pie chart is that it clearly shows that the total of all the categories of the pie adds to 100%.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: pie chart
True or False: The larger the number of observations in a numerical data set, the larger the number of class intervals needed for a grouped frequency distribution.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: class interval, frequency distribution
True or False: Determining the class boundaries of a frequency distribution is highly subjective.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: class boundaries, frequency distribution
True or False: The original data values cannot be assessed once they are grouped into a frequency distribution table.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution
True or False: The percentage distribution cannot be constructed from the frequency distribution directly.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: percentage distribution, frequency distribution
True or False: The stem-and-leaf display is often superior to the frequency distribution in that it maintains the original values for further analysis.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: stem-and-leaf display, frequency distribution
True or False: The relative frequency is the frequency in each class divided by the total number of observations.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution
True or False: Ogives are plotted at the midpoints of the class groupings.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: ogives, midpoint
True or False: Percentage polygons are plotted at the boundaries of the class groupings.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: percentage polygons
True or False: The main principle behind the Pareto diagram is the ability to track the "vital few" from the "trivial many."
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: Pareto diagram
True or False: A histogram can have gaps between the bars, whereas bar charts cannot have gaps.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: histogram, bar chart
True or False: Histograms are used for numerical data while bar charts are suitable for categorical data.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: histogram, bar chart
True or False: A Wal-Mart store in a small town monitors customer complaints and organizes these complaints into six distinct categories. Over the past year, the company has received 534 complaints. One possible graphical method for representing these data would be a Pareto chart.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: Pareto diagram
True or False: Apple Computer, Inc. collected information on the age of their customers. The youngest customer was 12 and the oldest was 72. To study the distribution of the age among its customers, it can use a Pareto diagram.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: Pareto diagram
True or False: Apple Computer, Inc. collected information on the age of their customers. The youngest customer was 12 and the oldest was 72. To study the distribution of the age among its customers, it is best to use a pie chart.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: pie chart
True or False: Apple Computer, Inc. collected information on the age of their customers. The youngest customer was 12 and the oldest was 72. To study the distribution of the age among its customers, it can use a percentage polygon.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: percentage polygon
True or False: Apple Computer, Inc. collected information on the age of their customers. The youngest customer was 12 and the oldest was 72. To study the percentage of their customers who are below a certain age, it can use an ogive.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: ogive
True or False: If you wish to construct a graph of a relative frequency distribution, you would most likely construct an ogive first.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: ogive
True or False: An ogive is a cumulative percentage polygon.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: ogive, cumulative percentage polygon
True or False: A side-by-side chart is two histograms plotted side-by-side.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: side-by-side chart
True or False: A good choice for the number of class groups to use in constructing frequency distribution is to have at least 5 but no more than 15 class groups.
ANSWER:
True
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: number of classes
True or False: In general, a frequency distribution should have at least 8 class groups but no more than 20.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: number of classes
True of False: To determine the width of class interval, divide the number of class groups by the range of the data.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: class interval
True or False: The percentage polygon is formed by having the lower boundary of each class represent the data in that class and then connecting the sequence of lower boundaries at their respective class percentages.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: percentage polygon
True or False: A polygon can be constructed from a bar chart.
ANSWER:
False
TYPE: TF DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: polygon
To evaluate two categorical variables at the same time, a _______ could be developed.
ANSWER:
contingency or cross-classification table or side-by-side bar chart
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: contingency table, cross-classification table
Relationships in a contingency table can be examined more fully if the frequencies are converted into _______ .
ANSWER:
percentages or proportions
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: contingency table
TABLE 2-12
The table below contains the opinions of a sample of 200 people broken down by gender about the latest congressional plan to eliminate anti-trust exemptions for professional baseball.
For Neutral Against Totals
Female 38 54 12 104
Male 12 36 48 96
Totals 50 90 60 200
Referring to Table 2-12, construct a table of row percentages.
ANSWER:
For Neutral Against Totals
Female 36.54 51.92 11.54 100.00
Male 12.50 37.50 50.00 100.00
Totals 25.00 45.00 30.00 100.00
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: row percentages
Referring to Table 2-12, construct a table of column percentages.
ANSWER:
For Neutral Against Totals
Female 76.00 60.00 20.00 52.00
Male 24.00 40.00 80.00 48.00
Totals 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: column percentages
Referring to Table 2-12, construct a table of total percentages.
ANSWER:
For Neutral Against Totals
Female 19.00 27.00 6.00 52.00
Male 6.00 18.00 24.00 48.00
Totals 25.00 45.00 30.00 100.00
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: total percentages
Referring to Table 2-12, of those for the plan in the sample, ________ percent were females.
ANSWER:
76%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-12, of those neutral in the sample, ________ percent were males.
ANSWER:
40%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-12, of the males in the sample, ________ percent were for the plan.
ANSWER:
12.50%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table
Referring to Table 2-12, of the females in the sample, ________ percent were against the plan.
ANSWER:
11.54%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table
Referring to Table 2-12, of the females in the sample, ________ percent were either neutral or against the plan.
ANSWER:
63.46% or (51.92+11.54)%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table
Referring to Table 2-12, ________ percent of the 200 were females who were against the plan.
ANSWER:
6%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table
Referring to Table 2-12, ________ percent of the 200 were males who were neutral.
ANSWER:
18%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table
Referring to Table 2-12, ________ percent of the 200 were females who were either neutral or against the plan.
ANSWER:
33%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Difficult
KEYWORDS: contingency table
Referring to Table 2-12, _______ percent of the 200 were males who were not against the plan.
ANSWER:
24%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Difficult
KEYWORDS: contingency table
Referring to Table 2-12, _______ percent of the 200 were not neutral.
ANSWER:
55%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Difficult
KEYWORDS: contingency table, row percentages
Referring to Table 2-12, _______ percent of the 200 were against the plan.
ANSWER:
30%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, row percentages
Referring to Table 2-12, ________ percent of the 200 were males.
ANSWER:
48%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-12, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of the population will be for the plant.
ANSWER:
25%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, row percentages
Referring to Table 2-12, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of the population will be males.
ANSWER:
48%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-12, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of those for the plan in the population will be males.
ANSWER:
24%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table
Referring to Table 2-12, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of the males in the population will be against the plan.
ANSWER:
50%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table
Referring to Table 2-12, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of the females in the population will not be against the plan.
ANSWER:
88.46% or (36.54+51.92)
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table
TABLE 2-13
Given below is the stem-and-leaf display representing the amount of detergent used in gallons (with leaves in 10ths of gallons) in a month by 25 drive-through car wash operations in Phoenix.
9 | 147
10 | 02238
11 | 135566777
12 | 223489
13 | 02
Referring to Table 2-13, if a frequency distribution for the amount of detergent used is constructed, using "9.0 but less than 10.0 gallons" as the first class, the frequency of the 11.0 but less than 12.0 gallons class would be ________.
ANSWER:
9
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-13, if a percentage histogram for the detergent data is constructed, using "9.0 but less than 10.0 gallons" as the first class, the percentage of drive-through car wash operations that use 12.0 but less than 13.0 gallons of detergent would be ________.
ANSWER:
24%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, percentage distribution
Referring to Table 2-13, if a percentage histogram for the detergent data is constructed, using "9.0 but less than 10.0 gallons" as the first class, what percentage of drive-through car wash operations use less than 12 gallons of detergent in a month?
ANSWER:
68%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: percentage distribution, cumulative relative frequency
Referring to Table 2-13, if a relative frequency or percentage distribution for the detergent data is constructed, using "9.0 but less than 10.0 gallons" as the first class, what percentage of drive-through car wash operations use at least 10 gallons of detergent in a month?
ANSWER:
88%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, percentage distribution
Referring to Table 2-13, if a relative frequency or percentage distribution for the detergent data is constructed, using "9.0 but less than 10.0 gallons" as the first class, what percentage of drive-through car wash operations use at least 10 gallons but less than 13 gallons of detergent in a month?
ANSWER:
80%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, percentage distribution
Referring to Table 2-13, construct a frequency distribution for the detergent data, using "9.0 but less than 10.0 gallons" as the first class.
ANSWER:
Purchases (gals) Frequency
9.0 but less than 10.0 3
10.0 but less than 11.0 5
11.0 but less than 12.0 9
12.0 but less than 13.0 6
13.0 but less than 14.0 2
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-13, construct a relative frequency or percentage distribution for the detergent data, using "9.0 but less than 10.0" as the first class.
ANSWER:
Gasoline
Purchases (gals) Percentage
9.0 but less than 10.0 12%
10.0 but less than 11.0 20
11.0 but less than 12.0 36
12.0 but less than 13.0 24
13.0 but less than 14.0 8
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: relative frequency distribution, percentage distribution
Referring to Table 2-13, construct a cumulative percentage distribution for the detergent data if the corresponding frequency distribution uses "9.0 but less than 10.0" as the first class.
ANSWER:
Gasoline Frequency Percentage
Purchases (gals) Less Than Less Than
9.0 but less than 10.0 3 12
10.0 but less than 11.0 8 32
11.0 but less than 12.0 17 68
12.0 but less than 13.0 23 92
13.0 but less than 14.0 25 100
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: cumulative percentage distribution
Referring to Table 2-13, construct a percentage histogram for the detergent data, using "9.0 but less than 10.0" as the first class.
ANSWER:
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: histogram, frequency distribution
Referring to Table 2-13, construct a cumulative percentage polygon for the detergent data if the corresponding frequency distribution uses "9.0 but less than 10.0" as the first class.
ANSWER:
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: cumulative percentage polygon
Referring to Table 2-13, construct a percentage polygon for the detergent data if the corresponding frequency distribution uses "9.0 but less than 10.0" as the first class.
ANSWER:
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: percentage distribution
TABLE 2-14
The table below contains the number of people who own a portable DVD player in a sample of 600 broken down by gender.
Own a Portable
DVD Player Male Female
Yes 96 40
No 224 240
Referring to Table 2-14, construct a table of row percentages.
ANSWER:
OwnMaleFemaleTotalYes70.59%29.41%100.00%No48.28%51.72%100.00%Total53.33%46.67%100.00%
TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: row percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, construct a table of column percentages.
ANSWER:
OwnMaleFemaleTotalYes30.00%14.29%22.67%No70.00%85.71%77.33%Total100.00%100.00%100.00%TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: column percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, construct a table of total percentages.
ANSWER:
OwnMaleFemaleTotalYes16.00%6.67%22.67%No37.33%40.00%77.33%Total53.33%46.67%100.00%TYPE: PR DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: total percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, of those who owned a portable DVD in the sample, ________ percent were females.
ANSWER:
29.41%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, row percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, of those who did not own a portable DVD in the sample, ________ percent were males.
ANSWER:
48.28%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, row percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, of the males in the sample, ________ percent owned a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
30%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, of the females in the sample, ________ percent did not own a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
85.71%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, of the females in the sample, ________ percent owned a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
14.29%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, ________ percent of the 600 were females who owned a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
6.67%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, total percentage
Referring to Table 2-14, ________ percent of the 600 were males who owned a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
16%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, total percentage
Referring to Table 2-14, ________ percent of the 600 were females who either owned or did not own a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
46.67%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, total percentage
Referring to Table 2-14, _______ percent of the 600 were males who did not owned a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
37.33%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, total percentage
Referring to Table 2-14, _______ percent of the 600 owned a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
22.67%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, _______ percent of the 600 did not owned a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
77.33%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, ________ percent of the 600 were females.
ANSWER:
46.67%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Easy
KEYWORDS: contingency table, row percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of the population will own a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
22.67%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of the population will be males.
ANSWER:
53.33%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of those who own a portable DVD in the population will be males.
ANSWER:
70.59%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, row percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of the males in the population will own a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
30%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
Referring to Table 2-14, if the sample is a good representation of the population, we can expect _______ percent of the females in the population will not own a portable DVD.
ANSWER:
85.71%
TYPE: FI DIFFICULTY: Moderate
KEYWORDS: contingency table, column percentages
PAGE 26 Presenting Data in Tables and Charts
Presenting Data in Tables and Charts PAGE 27
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